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Components of the NCWSP
National Coverage
Operational Documents
The state of Rural and Small Towns Water Services in Ghana (Fact Sheets)
Related Downloads
2016 Rural Water Coverage
2014 Rural Water Coverage Statistics
2013 Rural Coverage Statistics



The objectives of the National Water and Sanitation Programme are as follows:

  1. To provide access to water and sanitation services for rural communities and small towns in Ghana
  2. Ensure the sustainability of water and sanitation facilities provided
  3. Maximize health benefits by integrating water, sanitation and hygiene promotion 




The key elements and principles of the NCWSP include the following:

  1. Demand Responsive Approach
  2. Decentralized Planning, Implementation and Management
  3. Community contribution to capital cost
  4. Community contribution to capital cost
  5. Private Sector provision of good and services
  6. Public Sector facilitation
  7. Integration of hygiene promotion with provision of water and Sanitation facilities
  8. Gender mainstreaming at all levels
  9. Collaboration and coordination with relevant stakeholders



The policy thrust of the national programme is the Community Ownership and Management (COM) of the water and sanitation facilities installed in the beneficiary communities and the use of the Private sector to support the process.



The management of the NCWSP by CWSA is done through its nation and regional offices. The actual implementation of the NCWSP is NCWSP is done by the District Assemblies through their District Water and Sanitation Teams (DWSTs).



The programme is:

  1. Demand-Driven (Demand Responsive Approach). Communities, through their local representatives are required to demand for the programme support through their District Assemblies (DAs).
  2. Decentralized with districts and communities participating in Planning and Design; particularly women playing active roles in all processes.



Cost sharing arrangement between development partners and beneficiaries of the project is as follows:

  1. External support Agency - 90%
  2. District Assembly (GoG) - 5%
  3. Beneficiary Community - 5%



Different types of water supply and sanitation are provided.

Small Communities Point Sources (population up to 2000)

  1. Hand dug well fitted with hand pump
  2. Spring development
  3. Borehole fitted with hand pump
  4. Mechanized borehole with limited distribution
  5. Rain Water Harvesting


Small Towns _Piped Schemes (population above 2000)

  1. Ground water based piped schemes
  2. Spring development
  3. Borehole fitted with hand pump
  4. Mechanized borehole with limited distribution
  5. Rain Water Harvesting


Small Towns Piped Schemes (population above 2000)

  1. Ground water based piped schemes
  2. Spring or Highland gravity water supply schemes
  3. Surface water with slow sand filtration piped schemes
  4. Surface water with minimal conventional treatment schemes
  5. Other technologies based on ground conditions


Prioritized Order of Source Selection

  1. Ground water including spring
  2. Relatively unpolluted surface water
  3. Slightly polluted surface water



Rural Communities

  1. Rectangular single pit VIP(lined and unlined)
  2. Mozambique single pit VIP(lined and unlined)
  3. 1-2 seated KVIP
  4. Any other improved versions of traditional latrines that may be available


Small towns

  1. 1-2 seated KVIP
  2. 3-seater variation in shared _facilities for congested core areas
  3. Pour flush latrines
  4. Ecosan toilets
  5. Alternatives that have higher capital and / or O&M costs (eg. WCs or Pour flush linked to communal septic tanks) shall be considered on case_by_case bases for high-housing density core areas, or areas with difficult terrain eg. High –water table
  6. Other technologies approved by MLGRDS.



  1. 4-10 seated KVIP
  2. Al options should have Hand Washing facilities.



The construction of the physical facilities is handled by Private Companies and Artisans as stipulated in Act 564.


The Operation and Maintenance of completed facilities is supported by the following structures:


Point Sources

  1. Water Sanitation Committee (WATAN) supported Pump Caretakers and Area Mechanics
  2. National Spare Parts Distribution Network.


Piped Schemes

  1. Water and Sanitation Development Boards (WSDBs) through their employed staff.
  2. Water and Sanitation Development Boards through contracts with Private Operators.



The NCWSP project cycle consists of the following stages:

  1. Community mobilization and sensitization
  2. Health and hygiene promotion
  3. Participatory planning and construction
  4. Operation and maintenance
  5. Monition and evaluation


The Sub Project Cycle include the following steps

  1. Promotion
  2. Identification and Application by the community
  3. Selection of Community
  4. Formulation of Proposal
  5. Appraisal and Approval
  6. Contraction
  7. Construction and Community Development
  8. Writing of Completion Report
  9. Operation and Maintenance
  10. Auditing
  11. Monitoring and Evaluation

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